According to the latest data from the World Health Organization, breast cancer has replaced lung cancer as the world’s largest malignant tumor, accounting for approximately 11.7% of new cancer cases. There are approximately 420,000 new breast cancer patients in my country every year, and the annual incidence rate has increased by 3% to 4% annually in recent years.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs in breast epithelial tissue. In my country’s eastern coastal areas and economically developed large cities, the incidence of breast cancer has increased particularly significantly. Breast cancer has no obvious symptoms in its early stages.
Liu Baoyin, deputy chief physician of the Department of Surgery at China-Japan Friendship Hospital: The early symptoms of breast cancer are not very typical. Most people may accidentally discover a painless nodule. Including during the bathing process, you may suddenly find a lump, which is neither painful nor itchy. This is different from other benign inflammations and granulomas. If there are dimpling or dimples in the skin, it is a sign of late-stage breast cancer.
Clinical statistics show that among new breast cancer cases every year, about 3% to 10% of patients have distant metastasis when diagnosed. The incidence rate of breast cancer gradually increases after the age of 20, reaching a high value between the ages of 45 and 50.
Zhang Baoning, chief physician of the Breast Center of the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences: The cause is not very clear, but there are some patterns, such as family history, high breast density, being unmarried, not having children, not breastfeeding at a normal physiological age, exposure to some radiation, and estrogen. High levels of exogenous estrogen, eating things containing estrogen, and some diseases, such as atypical hyperplasia of the breast, can also become malignant. Current research has found that patients with endometrial cancer have a higher chance of developing breast cancer, which is 1.4 times higher than that of normal women.
Breast cancer has become one of the most effective solid tumors
With the improvement of medical treatment, breast cancer has become one of the most effective solid tumors in treatment. After standard treatment, the 5-year survival rate of patients with early-stage breast cancer can reach more than 90%.
Since 2009, my country has promoted the implementation of women’s cervical cancer and breast cancer screening projects. Currently, the two cancer screening projects have covered more than 2,600 counties, districts and cities across the country, with a coverage rate of more than 90%, and nearly 100 million breast cancer screenings have been provided free of charge.
Fan Zhaoqing, Chief Physician of the Breast Center of Peking University Cancer Hospital: With early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment, we can achieve a better long-term survival rate on the one hand, and make the patient pay a smaller price on the other. For example, in our center, if a patient has no lymph node metastasis, her ten-year recurrence-free survival rate can reach over 92%.
In recent years, through precise treatment and comprehensive treatment of patients, the efficacy of breast cancer has been greatly improved and the quality of life of patients has been improved.
Fan Zhaoqing, chief physician of the Breast Center of Peking University Cancer Hospital: Now about 70% of patients can skip axillary lymph node dissection, which greatly preserves her labor force, and 50% of patients can complete breast cancer treatment without mastectomy. treat. In addition to surgical treatment, we also have comprehensive treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as targeted therapy and immunotherapy, which are all systemic treatments. With such a comprehensive treatment, the survival rate of the entire patient has been greatly improved compared to before.
What should I do if nodules are found during physical examination?
In our physical examination reports, two words like this begin to appear more and more: nodules. Among them, thyroid nodules, breast nodules and lung nodules are the most common. Are nodules tumors? Will it definitely develop into cancer? What should we do if nodules are found during physical examination?
Breast nodules include breast cancer, as well as breast hyperplasia nodules, breast cysts, and benign tumors such as breast fibromas. The vast majority of nodules are benign, especially those that have been present for a long time, are painful, and have not significantly increased. . Generally, benign breast nodules do not require special treatment and can be reviewed regularly. However, if the nodule is found to be painless and continues to grow, we must pay strict attention to this nodule.
Shi Xiaoguang, Chief Physician of Dongzhimen Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine: We judge that the nodules are somewhat poorly differentiated. From the ultrasound point of view, the first is that the shape is similar to a round or long strip, the second is to see whether there are fine calcifications inside, and the third is The blood flow is very abundant, probably a not so good bad proliferation.
Many people think that nodules will turn into cancer sooner or later. In fact, the properties of nodules will not change, which means that nodules that have been determined to be benign will not become cancerous. If the examination shows that the breast nodules are at risk of malignancy, they need to be treated as soon as possible.
Lin Hua, Chief Physician of Fuxing Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University: For routine color ultrasound examinations, we recommend that women, especially those after the age of 40, have to do it every six months, or they can do mammography once a year. If there is a family genetic history, that is, if the mother has breast cancer, her offspring may be 10 years earlier than her, so we need to check early, detect it early, and treat it early.