The fun of popularizing new knowledge about new year’s goods

The fun of popularizing new knowledge about new year’s goods

The Spring Festival is approaching, and the flavor of the new year is getting stronger. Everyone is buying all kinds of New Year goods. The “sweet” sugar cane is very popular, and cherries and nuts have become delicacies during the Spring Festival. At the same time, on the balconies and in front of the windows of many people, blooming bougainvillea decorates the festive atmosphere. This colorful New Year’s Eve flower adds joy to the arrival of the New Year and symbolizes prosperity and prosperity in the New Year.

So, you know what – why is sugar cane so sweet? Are nuts fruits or seeds? Are the “flowers” of the bougainvillea we see flowers? Are cherries a large cherry? In these days when the spirit of the New Year is getting stronger, the “Tell Nature to You” column of this edition launches a special report to tell you about the new popular science knowledge in the New Year’s goods.

Why is sugar cane so sweet?

Shen Wankuan

The rhizome of sugar cane stores a large amount of sugary juice – “sucrose”.Sugarcane is a treasure all over its body and is an important sugar crop and light industrial raw material.

The peeled ones are sold in portions, and the whole ones are weighed and taken… Walking into the New Year market, sugarcane during the harvest season is very popular. “Everyone has candies, and sugar cane is planted everywhere.” A long stalk, either purple or green, looks ordinary but is full of sugar. In fact, apart from being eaten fresh, the main use of sugar cane is sugar production.

Sugarcane is a tropical herbaceous plant that likes light and heat. It has a well-developed root system, a thick stalk, and a stalk height of 3-5 meters. It is suitable for planting in tropical and subtropical areas with fertile soil, sufficient sunshine, and large temperature differences in winter. The rhizome of sugar cane stores a large amount of sugary juice – “sucrose”. my country is one of the origins of sugar cane and an important sugar producer and consumer. Sugar cultivation occupies an important position in my country’s agricultural economy. In the past five years, my country’s sugar production has accounted for approximately 5.6% of the world’s total. my country’s sugarcane areas are mainly distributed in the south of the Yangtze River Basin, with larger planting areas in Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan.

my country has a long history of sugarcane cultivation, and there are records of sugarcane cultivation in the Han Dynasty. With the continuous improvement of sugarcane planting technology, my country’s sugarcane cultivation and variety improvement have achieved remarkable results, and the sugarcane yield and sugar content have increased significantly. At present, sugarcane planting in my country is mainly winter planting or spring planting. The growing period is 10-12 months, and the harvest season is generally from early December to March of the following year.

According to the purpose, sugar cane can be divided into fruit cane and sugar cane. Among them, fruit cane is sugar cane specially designed for fresh consumption. It has the characteristics of easy to tear skin, low fiber, moderate sugar content, juicy and delicious taste; sugar cane is the raw material for sugar production, because it has hard skin, thick fiber and poor taste, and is generally not eaten. For commercial fresh food. What we buy in the market in our daily life are usually fruit cane.

Sugar cane is an important sugar crop. The raw sugar cane is processed by a press, and the extracted cane juice can be used to produce sugar cane sugar. Sugarcane is also an important raw material for light industry. The by-products such as bagasse remaining after extracting sugarcane juice can be used as raw materials for paper, fiberboard, etc. The waste molasses separated during the sugar production process of sugarcane juice can be used to make alcohol, yeast, glycerin, and propanol. , citric acid, etc.; the filter mud precipitated during the cane juice clarification stage can extract cane wax, cane fat, aconitic acid, chlorophyll, etc. By-products such as bagasse, waste molasses and filter mud also provide high-quality feed for the development of animal husbandry and fish farming, provide direct or indirect fertilizers for farmland production, and also provide a large amount of culture substrate for the production of edible fungi.

Sugar cane is full of treasures. A piece of sugar cane has opened up many “sweet businesses” and promoted the development of the paper industry, food industry, fertilizer industry, etc. At present, the entire process of sugarcane planting, processing, and comprehensive utilization in our country is becoming increasingly perfect. The sugarcane industry continues to transform and upgrade, and the comprehensive utilization efficiency and economic benefits continue to improve, which is bringing more “sweetness” to our lives.

(The author is a researcher at the College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, and was interviewed and compiled by our reporter Li Zong)

Are nuts fruits or seeds?

He Runxi

Nuts refer to fruits with a hard skin and one or more edible seeds inside.The part we eat is mostly the seeds of nuts

The Chinese New Year is approaching, and nuts have become one of the common items on the New Year’s shopping list. So, are the nuts we eat fruits or seeds?

According to the different properties of the peel when the fruit matures, fruits can be divided into two categories: dried fruits and fleshy fruits. Dried fruits are fruits with dry peel after maturity.

Nuts are a type of dried fruit, which are fruits with a hard skin and one or more edible seeds inside. Depending on whether the peel is cracked or not, nuts include closed fruits, such as walnuts and chestnuts, where the peel and seed coat are separated, and cracked nuts, such as peanuts, which crack along the dorsal suture or one side of the abdominal suture when mature.

Nuts are a broad concept and can be further subdivided into many types based on different classification perspectives. Hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, etc. that are common in the market are all cultivated in my country. The common feature of nuts is that they have a hard outer peel, which contains oily edible seeds. In other words, the part we eat is mostly the seeds of the nut.

Taking walnuts as an example, after the walnut tree blooms and is fertilized, the stigma and style fall off, the ovary gradually expands, the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary wall develops into a peel, and finally the fruit grows. The oval-shaped walnuts are wrapped in green peel. After the green peel falls off, they are the walnuts we often eat. They are actually the seeds of walnuts. The same is true for chestnuts.

Nuts are the essence of plants, rich in nutritional value and rich in protein, oil, minerals, vitamins and other nutrients. However, nuts are high-calorie foods. Although they are delicious, they should still be eaten in moderation.

In recent years, economic fruits represented by nuts have gradually become an important way to enrich people’s income and add green to mountains and rivers. Many farmers have embarked on the road to wealth by planting nuts. Our scientific and technological workers will further integrate, demonstrate and promote the technology system of the entire industry chain such as high yield, stable yield, high-quality breeding, high-yield cultivation technology, green prevention and control of pests and diseases, and comprehensive product utilization, so as to increase orchard production and increase the income of fruit farmers. Contribute.

(The author is a senior experimentalist at the Forestry College of Southwest Forestry University, and was interviewed and compiled by our reporter Li Maoying)

Are the “flowers” of bougainvillea flowers?

Zhou Qun

The colorful “flowers” of the bougainvillea are actually its bracts, which are used to attract insects and reproduce.The real flowers of bougainvillea are relatively small, and their appearance and structure are like plum blossoms. They also have tenacious vitality and are similar in shape and spirit to plum blossoms.

As the Spring Festival approaches, everyone likes to buy some New Year flowers to decorate their homes or give as gifts to relatives and friends. Bougainvillea is one of the common ones. They are open in groups, lively and gorgeous, and are suitable as small bonsai for home gardening to be placed on the desk or planted on the balcony.

Bougainvillea, also known as bougainvillea, rhododendron, and bougainvillea, is an evergreen shrub or woody vine of the genus Bougainvillea in the family Purpuraceae. It is native to South America and came to my country along the Maritime Silk Road in the 19th century.

do you know? The colorful “flowers” we see of bougainvillea are actually its bracts, which are botanically a type of abnormal leaf. In nature, plants rely on insects for pollination, and the flowers of Bougainvillea are very inconspicuous, so they cleverly grow brightly colored bracts to attract insects and reproduce.

So why is bougainvillea called “plum”? In “form”, more in “spirit”. Bougainvillea often blooms in winter and spring. The small flowers blooming in the middle of the three bracts resemble plum blossoms in appearance and structure. Its flowers are colorful but not delicate. It is drought-resistant, sun-resistant and barren-resistant. It is not restricted by geographical environment and has very strong vitality. During the blooming period, different varieties can be planted together in one place and compete to bloom. The flowers are in luxuriant clusters, showing the strength of a united team. Chinese people who love plum blossoms call them “plum blossoms”, which is reasonable.

Due to its long flowering period and large amount of flowers, Bougainvillea is widely introduced and cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. Today, bougainvillea has become the city flower of nearly 30 cities in my country.

In recent years, with the help of technology, bougainvillea has become a common species in many urban landscaping. In the National Bougainvillea Germplasm Resource Bank of Xiamen Garden and Botanical Garden, there are more than 1,000 Bougainvillea germplasm resources. In addition to the common red and purple colors, there are also white, yellow, orange, pink and multiple colors. In green belts, pedestrian bridges, overpasses and other landscaping scenes, people give full play to the malleable characteristics of bougainvillea and use it as decoration on flower stands, style columns, arches and walls, or as bonsai, landscape trees and flower hedges. Bougainvillea can be warm and festive, joyful and peaceful, or quiet and elegant, beautiful and dreamy, and is deeply loved by people. With the rise of home gardening, bougainvillea is entering more homes and decorating more people’s happy lives.

(The author is the director and senior engineer of the Bougainvillea Research and Promotion Center of Xiamen Garden and Botanical Garden, and was interviewed and compiled by our reporter Wang Xin)

Are cherries cherries?

Zhao Shiwei

The correct name of cherry is European sweet cherry, which belongs to the genus Sakura in the Rosaceae family.The genus Sakura includes about 150 species of plants, such as Chinese cherry, European sweet cherry, etc.

Recently, many people choose cherries when purchasing new year products. Do you have this question: Are cherries a cherry?

Botanically speaking, the correct name for cherries is European sweet cherry. According to the English pronunciation, merchants in my country’s Hong Kong and Macao regions call cherries “cherries”. Since then, cherries have become synonymous with imported European sweet cherries.

Cherries belong to the genus Sakura in the Rosaceae family. The genus Sakura is a relatively large family, including about 150 species of plants, many of which are edible, such as Chinese cherries, European sweet cherries, European sour cherries, hairy cherries, European plums, etc. European sweet cherries and Chinese cherries are suitable for fresh consumption, while European sour cherries have a sour taste and are suitable for processing into food.

There are about 1,200 cherry varieties in the world, among which European sweet cherries have the largest number and the widest cultivation area. European sweet cherries are commonly known as giant cherries. The earliest cultivation history can be traced back to Mesopotamia more than 4,000 years ago. Today, they can be found in Europe, North America, Oceania, South America, and Asia. In the 1870s, European sweet cherries began to be cultivated in my country. After the 1990s, they were planted on a large scale in Beijing, Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong and other places.

There are 40 species of wild Sakura plants in my country, 29 of which are endemic to my country. my country has a long history of cultivating and using cherries. In the Zhou Dynasty more than 3,000 years ago, people used cherries to entertain distinguished guests. There is a record in “Book of Rites·Yue Ling” that “we are ashamed to hold peaches”, and the “tao” here refers to cherries.

Chinese cherries, commonly known as small cherries, have small fruits and are mainly distributed in North China, East China and Southwest China. They are native to my country. Although Chinese cherries are delicious and juicy, the pulp decomposes quickly after maturity and is difficult to preserve and transport. Therefore, it is more suitable to be eaten as soon as possible after picking.

The main difference between Chinese cherries and European sweet cherries is that Chinese cherries have relatively small fruit, lighter skin, sweet and sour taste, bloom first and then grow leaves, the leaves have thick and heavy serrations, and there are stalked glands at the base of the leaves; while European sweet cherries have Cherry fruits are larger, with darker skin and a sweeter taste. They also have leaves when they bloom. The leaves have round-headed coarse serrations and glands on the upper part of the petiole.

European sweet cherries have thick flesh and some varieties have thick skin, making them suitable for storage and long-distance transportation. The seasons in Oceania and South America in the southern hemisphere are opposite to those in our country. When we celebrate the Spring Festival, it is the season when sweet cherries in the southern hemisphere are ripe. Among them, the most common ones on the market are large cherries produced in Chile.

Cherries come from afar, so transportation costs are high, and the price is higher than local cherries. But nutritionally speaking, there is no obvious difference between the two, and people can take what they need according to their preferences.

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