Recently, the cold wave has hit and the temperature has dropped sharply, which can easily cause vasoconstriction and lead to frequent cardiovascular events. November 20 this year is the tenth “China Myocardial Infarction Treatment Day”.
Xu Yawei, director of the heart center and cardiology department of the Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, reminded that the golden time window for myocardial infarction treatment is 120 minutes. Once patients develop symptoms such as chest tightness and chest pain, they should call 120 for treatment in time. In addition, for patients with a history of myocardial infarction, proactive antithrombotic, lipid-lowering, heart rate control and other comprehensive management are needed to reduce the occurrence of reinfarction.
Acute myocardial infarction refers to myocardial necrosis caused by acute and persistent ischemia and hypoxia of the coronary arteries. The incidence of myocardial infarction is closely related to climate. Once the temperature drops sharply by more than 3 to 5 degrees Celsius, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction will also increase.
“Every year from November to January of the following year, there is a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases, among which acute myocardial infarction is one of the most critical. With the onset of the cold wave, the change of autumn and winter, the temperature difference between morning and evening and indoor and outdoor temperature gradually increases. Especially on days when the temperature drops significantly, the body sensation of alternating cold and warmth is more obvious, and this is the time when myocardial infarction is prone to occur,” Xu Yawei said.
After a myocardial infarction, clearing the blocked coronary arteries and restoring blood supply to the heart becomes the key to reducing mortality. In this regard, Xu Yawei emphasized that there are two “120”s to keep in mind. First of all, patients or witnesses should call 120 to seek medical attention as soon as possible when symptoms of suspected myocardial infarction occur. The second is to grasp the golden treatment time window of 120 minutes. If the patient can be treated within 120 minutes and restore the blood supply to the myocardium, the prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction will be greatly improved.
It should be noted that patients with myocardial infarction are still living with the disease after being discharged from the hospital, and they need to be alert to the occurrence of reinfarction. “Generally speaking, patients who have had myocardial infarction are prone to recurrence. Compared with people without a history of myocardial infarction, the former is more than 10 times more likely to have a recurrence within one year. And relevant studies show that once a myocardial infarction occurs, Relapse will not only make the condition more severe, but also have a higher risk of death,” Xu Yawei said.
The elderly, patients with high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia, as well as long-term smokers, obesity, and people prone to stress are all high-risk groups for myocardial infarction. The high incidence and harm of reinfarction undoubtedly puts forward higher requirements for the prevention and treatment of myocardial infarction. Therefore, after discharge from the hospital, patients with myocardial infarction must adhere to long-term standardized disease management and conduct comprehensive management of risk factors.
“After discharge, patients need to take drugs to prevent thrombosis on time and in the right amount. In addition, myocardial infarction patients with hyperlipidemia also need to use lipid-lowering drugs for a long time to stabilize plaques and pay attention to heart rate control; patients with diabetes should be highly Pay attention to the management of blood sugar.” Xu Yawei said that cardiovascular disease brings a heavy social burden. Comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease risks should be strengthened and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease risk monitoring should be carried out to cover people over 35 years old.