According to the forecast of the Central Meteorological Observatory, from January 31 to February 5, large-scale persistent rain, snow and freezing weather will occur in central and eastern my country. The rain and snow are expected to last the longest since this winter and have the widest impact.
But the cold wave cannot stop people. The Spring Festival is around the corner. In this kind of weather, outdoor activities will inevitably lead to frostbite. So what exactly is frostbite? What department should I get for frostbite? How to prevent frostbite?
What is frostbite?
Frostbite is local or systemic damage to the human body caused by the cold and damp external environment. Localized frostbite is more common in life, and occurs most frequently at the ends of the limbs, face, and auricles.
If the human body is exposed to a cold environment for a long time, it will cause systemic hypothermia. When the core temperature of the human body is lower than 34°C, freezing will occur, and the person’s consciousness will be blurred, and finally the heartbeat and breathing will be sudden. stop.
Today, such extreme cases of direct freezing to death are rare, but localized frostbite still occurs from time to time. Tu Hualei, a doctor in the first ward of the Burn Department of the Fifth Hospital of Harbin, said in an interview with the media that the temperature dropped sharply in the cold winter, and people often suffered from frostbite due to carelessness when doing outdoor activities or working, and the areas of frostbite were relatively consistent, mainly Parts with poor blood circulation in the distal parts of the limbs, such as fingers, toes, ears, etc.
How serious is frostbite?
A popular science article published by the Fourth Hospital of Harbin shows that, generally speaking, frostbite is divided into four degrees:
First-degree frostbite: the common “frostbite”, which is superficial frostbite on the skin and damages the surface layer of the skin. The skin in the frozen area will be red, swollen and congested, and may feel hot, itchy, and burning. It can heal on its own within a few days.
Second degree frostbite: The superficial dermis will be injured, the skin will be red and swollen, and there will be blisters of varying sizes. The blisters may contain bloody fluid, and deep edema, severe pain, and dull skin sensation may occur.
Third-degree frostbite: Frostbite occurs under the skin, and the color of the skin changes from pale to dark brown or purple-brown. It is not easy to heal after the injury. In addition to leaving scars, you may also feel allergic or painful for a long time.
Fourth-degree frostbite: Generally, it is a relatively severe frostbite. It may freeze muscles and bones, and even cause necrosis of limbs. It may also be systemic frostbite, which may cause sudden cardiac arrest or sudden death.
Li Jun, chief physician of the Department of Dermatology at Peking Union Medical College Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, said in an interview with the media that necrosis of skin tissue caused by frostbite, if not treated in time, will lead to secondary bacterial infections, endangering other organs, tissues and even life.
What department should I get for frostbite?
The mechanisms of frostbite and burns are similar. They are both caused by changes in the environment that cause damage to the skin and soft tissues. Therefore, when frostbite occurs, please go to the burn department immediately for treatment.
If the patient cannot be sent to the hospital immediately, rewarming should be performed as soon as possible to reduce the time for tissue freezing. Rapid and correct rewarming is the most effective way to preserve healthy tissue.
How to rewarm?
A popular science article published by Songshan Hospital of Qingdao University School of Medicine points out that when the skin is found to be prone to frostbite, you should immediately return to a warm room, quickly remove cold, wet and tight clothes, shoes and hats, and allow the limbs to rewarm naturally. After 5-10 minutes, approach the heating device to allow the temperature of the skin to rise slowly. At the same time, you can also place the frozen part in constant temperature water at 40°C for 20-30 minutes. When the frostbitten skin tissue becomes slightly red and soft to the touch, , then rewarming is completed.
Depending on the degree of frostbite, you should further go to the hospital for treatment after rewarming.
How to prevent frostbite?
In the cold winter season, the occurrence of frostbite is mostly related to insufficient knowledge of cold protection, improper use of cold protection materials or equipment, etc. Although clinical treatment technology is constantly improving, timely prevention should still be carried out.
When going out or doing outdoor activities, you should take protective measures in advance, add more clothes in time, protect areas prone to frostbite, replace wet gloves, shoes and socks in time, and do not touch cold metal with bare hands.
In addition, in winter, you should also eat more foods that can prevent colds, such as black foods: black rice, black beans, black sesame seeds, black fungus, etc., which can nourish the blood, strengthen the body, and promote blood circulation. Spicy things such as ginger and pepper also have a cooling effect. Beef and mutton are also better at keeping out the cold. Eat hot meals and drink hot drinks as much as possible to enhance your cold resistance and resistance.
It needs to be reminded that people who work in an open-air environment for a long time should not stay still for a long time. In addition to keeping warm, you should also strengthen exercise to promote blood circulation in the body.