The Double Ninth Festival has just passed and it is World Osteoporosis Day. Paying attention to the physical health of the elderly should be something we should pay attention to every day. For example, osteoporosis is a common disease among middle-aged and elderly people. Common low back pain, joint pain, and easy fractures may be related to osteoporosis. Is there any way to prevent it? Let’s first briefly introduce osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is divided into 3 categories
Osteoporosis is a systemic disease characterized by bone loss and microstructural destruction of bone tissue, resulting in bone fragility and increased risk of fracture.
Depending on the cause, osteoporosis can be divided into the following 3 categories:
1. Primary osteoporosis
This type of osteoporosis refers to the physiological degeneration of bones that occurs with age.
2. Secondary osteoporosis
This kind of osteoporosis is generally secondary to other diseases such as endocrine diseases, blood diseases, long-term bed rest, etc.
3. Idiopathic osteoporosis
This kind of osteoporosis is more common in teenagers aged 8-14 years old, and is often accompanied by a family history of inheritance.
To prevent osteoporosis, focus on supplementing these 4 types of nutrients
The prevention of osteoporosis is important. From childhood attention should be paid to a balanced diet and regular moderate physical activity. Preventing osteoporosis through diet and nutrition is one of the effective ways. The principle of dietary nutrition prevention is to reasonably supplement calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and other nutrients through diet on the basis of reasonable energy and protein supply.
1. Supplement adequate calcium
The recommended daily intake of calcium from food is: 800 mg/day for those over 18 years of age.
Milk and dairy products are the preferred foods, and you can also eat small fish, shrimp or nuts regularly.
Calcium can be supplemented in an appropriate amount when necessary, but the total calcium intake should not exceed 2,000 mg per day. Excessive intake will increase the risk of kidney stones.
2. Supplement an appropriate amount of phosphorus
The appropriate ratio of calcium to phosphorus in food is beneficial to the utilization of calcium and slows down bone calcium loss. However, excessive phosphorus intake may increase the risk of osteoporosis.
The appropriate supply of dietary phosphorus is 720 mg/day for 15-29 years old, 710 mg/day for 30-64 years old, and 680 mg/day for those over 65 years old. The maximum tolerable intake of phosphorus is 3,000 mg per day. Foods are generally rich in phosphorus, and phosphorus-containing additives are added to some foods during processing.
3. Eat enough vitamins
Vitamin D promotes the absorption and utilization of calcium. The recommended intake is 10 micrograms per day for those aged 18-64 years and 15 mg per day for those aged 65 and above. Regular exposure to sunlight can activate vitamin D in the body.
Vitamin A promotes bone development, and vitamin C promotes the synthesis of collagen in the bone matrix. Adequate intake should be ensured.
Foods rich in vitamins include a variety of fruits and vegetables. It is recommended to eat no less than 200-350 grams of fruits and 300-500 grams of vegetables every day.
4. Eat the right amount of protein
Protein can promote the absorption and storage of calcium, but excess also promotes the excretion of calcium, so it should be taken in moderation.
The recommended amount of protein for adults in my country is 1.16 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. For example, an adult weighing 70 kilograms has a daily protein intake of 81 grams.
2 principles for choosing food
In order to prevent osteoporosis, on the premise of ensuring a reasonable and balanced dietary nutrition, you should pay attention to these two points when choosing foods:
1. Preferred foods
Foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, such as milk, dairy products, small shrimps, kelp, beans and their products, sardines, salmon, herring, eggs, etc.
Staple food, fermented cereals are recommended; livestock, poultry, fish and meat; various fruits and vegetables (except those with high oxalic acid content).
2. Eat less or no food
It is recommended to eat less or not eat some foods containing high phosphorus liver and high phosphate additives.
Some vegetables are rich in oxalic acid, which to a certain extent combines with calcium to form insoluble calcium salts and reduces calcium absorption.
It is not recommended to eat too much of these foods. If you want to eat them, you can blanch them in boiling water first, and then cook them after part of the oxalic acid is dissolved in the water. For example, spinach, winter bamboo shoots, wild rice, onions, etc.
Who is prone to osteoporosis?
The following four groups of people are more likely to develop osteoporosis:
1. Postmenopausal women
Postmenopausal women are affected by the reduced secretion of estrogen in the body. Estrogen helps increase and store bone mass. As a result, postmenopausal women are more likely to suffer from osteoporosis than men.
2. Seniors over 65 years old
As the elderly age, calcium-regulated hormone secretion is imbalanced, causing bone metabolism disorders. In addition, due to the weakened digestive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract, nutrient absorption is reduced, resulting in a lack of nutrients in the body. Therefore, the elderly are also susceptible to osteoporosis.
3. Men aged 30-50 years old
Men in this age group have an increased risk of osteoporosis due to unhealthy lifestyle habits such as high intake of high-protein, high-sugar, and high-fat foods, and high frequency of smoking and drinking.
People who have a family history of osteoporosis, are deficient in calcium and vitamin D in their diet, take certain medications, smoke and drink excessive amounts of strong tea, coffee, and carbonated drinks are all at high risk for osteoporosis.
Text/Dr. Guo Xiaohui, master’s student of Cai Hao, Dr. Ma Health Group
Scientific review/Ma Guansheng (Professor, School of Public Health, Peking University)