On November 13, the National Health Commission held a press conference and invited relevant experts to introduce the prevention and control of winter respiratory diseases in my country. Mi Feng, spokesperson of the National Health Commission and deputy director of the Publicity Department, said that we must adhere to the same prevention and treatment of multiple diseases, pay close attention to the epidemic situation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, new coronavirus infection, influenza, dengue fever, norovirus infection, etc., and strengthen monitoring and early warning. Understand changes in virus activity intensity, virus mutation and other changes.
my country has entered flu season
Real-time monitoring of influenza activity data from the National Influenza Center shows that influenza activity in both southern and northern provinces of China continues to rise. The southern provinces are higher than the northern provinces. All parts of China are gradually entering the influenza epidemic season. The current circulating influenza strain is type A. Mainly H3N2 subtype.
Tong Zhaohui, director of the Beijing Institute of Respiratory Diseases, pointed out that influenza starts with fever and upper respiratory tract infection, followed by worsening cough, dyspnea and related pulmonary signs. Symptoms such as high fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle aches are relatively obvious. Image There are some similarities with mycoplasma pneumonia. “So the detection of respiratory specimens is more important. Influenza A or B viruses can be distinguished by detecting antigens and nucleic acids.”
“Mononucleosis is also a common disease in children and adolescents. It is mainly caused by Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus. The disease is self-limiting and the incidence rate has not increased compared with previous years.” Tong Zhaohui said.
Data from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention show that since late August this year, the number of reported cases of new coronavirus infections nationwide has declined for 10 consecutive weeks. Global and Chinese surveillance data show that the currently circulating new coronavirus mutant strains belong to Omicron. “The country is still conducting systematic multi-channel monitoring of the new coronavirus, and the data is regularly published on the website.” said Wang Dayan, director of the National Influenza Center of the Institute of Viral Diseases of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
In the past three years, the global monitoring of mycoplasma infection rates has been at a low level. Combined with the fact that Mycoplasma pneumoniae itself has its own epidemic pattern, cyclical epidemics occur every 3 to 7 years. “Therefore, mycoplasma pneumonia in children is on the trend this year.” Tong Zhaohui said.
Can I take my own medication?It is recommended to confirm the pathogen first
Recently, “Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection” has been a hot search topic. Tong Zhaohui said that Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the common pathogens of respiratory tract infections. It is prevalent in autumn and winter in the north and in summer and autumn in the south. Fever and cough are the main clinical manifestations. At the onset of the disease, it is severe, paroxysmal, and irritating. A dry cough may be accompanied by headache, runny nose, sore throat, earache, etc. Compared with previous years, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection has shown a trend among younger people this year, but the condition has not worsened significantly.
“Children are at high risk of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, especially children 5 years old and above, but children under 5 years old, including infants and young children, can also get the disease.” Wang Quan, chief physician of Beijing Children’s Hospital, said this is because of the development of children’s immune systems Imperfect, non-specific and specific immune functions of the respiratory tract are imperfect. Mycoplasma pneumoniae itself is highly transmissible and can be spread through respiratory droplets or close contact. However, schools and kindergartens are highly crowded and the pathogen is easy to spread quickly. In addition, the incubation period of mycoplasma pneumonia infection is relatively long, usually 1 to 4 weeks. Carriers and patients of the pathogen are transmissible, and there are many opportunities for cross-infection.
So, is it okay for some parents of children to take azithromycin drugs on their own? Wang Quan believes that this approach is not advisable. It is currently the season of high incidence of respiratory diseases in children. Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections account for a large proportion, overall, viruses are still the most common pathogens of respiratory infections in children. Common viruses include adenovirus, influenza virus, etc. Azithromycin is ineffective against viral infections. In addition, children are young and have underdeveloped organ functions. Drug abuse may cause adverse reactions in children. Azithromycin is a prescription drug. Although it is the drug of choice for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, it should be used under the guidance of a physician or pharmacist.
Wang Quan emphasized that the clinical manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection vary in severity. Not all children infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae will develop pneumonia. The vast majority of infected people have mild symptoms, and only a few will develop severe symptoms. The prognosis is generally good and there will be no sequelae.
How to prevent it?Get vaccinated + maintain good hygiene habits
Winter and spring are the seasons with high incidence of respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza. In this regard, Wang Dayan pointed out that the most effective and economical way to prevent infectious diseases is vaccination. Influenza vaccination can effectively reduce the risk of infection, disease and severe illness.
The public can also reduce the risk of infection and transmission by adopting scientific prevention methods in their daily lives. Wang Dayan introduced that first of all, a healthy lifestyle is an important guarantee for enhancing physical fitness and improving body resistance. Adequate sleep, adequate nutrition and appropriate physical exercise must be ensured. Secondly, developing good personal hygiene habits can reduce the risk of infection. For example, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue, towel or elbow when coughing or sneezing, pay attention to hand hygiene, and wash your hands frequently. Thirdly, keep the environment at home and workplace clean, regularly open windows indoors for ventilation, and family members should wear masks when caring for patients with respiratory infections. Finally, high-risk groups such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and patients with chronic diseases should try to avoid going to crowded public places. If they must go, it is recommended to wear masks and change them in time.
Liu Qingquan, director of the Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, put forward preventive suggestions from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine in treating diseases, including: the diet should be balanced and regular, and avoid eating unclean foods. Foods that are too spicy or sweet can easily damage the spleen and stomach and cause the body to produce accumulation. Hot or humid heat can easily lead to exogenous infection after internalization, leading to respiratory tract infection. At the same time, exercise should be moderate. It is enough to feel a little sweaty and warm. Especially for middle-aged and elderly people, avoid sweating profusely and depleting your health.
Wang Dayan emphasized that once respiratory infection symptoms such as fever and cough occur, patients should rest at home to avoid transmitting the pathogen to other people. If the symptoms are severe, you should take personal protection and go to the hospital as soon as possible to get timely and effective treatment.
“It is necessary to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and health management in key areas and places such as rural areas, schools, and elderly care and childcare institutions, follow up on key groups such as the elderly, patients with basic diseases, and children, and optimize vaccination services.” Mi Feng It was emphasized that medical resources should be coordinated, diagnosis and treatment processes should be optimized, outpatient and emergency departments, pediatrics, and respiratory departments should be strengthened to carry out various medical treatment tasks.