Medicine, the innovations expected in 2024 that could revolutionize it – WWN

Medicine, the innovations expected in 2024 that could revolutionize it – WWN


Of Maria Giovanna Faiella

Among the promising experiments according to Nature Medicine: Artificial intelligence for early diagnosis of lung cancer, stem cells for Parkinson’s, HIV vaccine, app for women with depression during pregnancy

From new gene editing techniques for hereditary hypercholesterolemia, to tools Artificial intelligence used in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and in triage al Emergency room to save the lives of those who fall ill; from the use of stem cells to fight the Parkinson’s diseaseto the new vaccine againstHIVup to an app to help women who suffer from depression during pregnancy. I’m among them experiments revolutionary That in 2024 the history of some diseases could change (and those who suffer from it or could become ill), according to eleven experts interviewed by the scientific magazine
Nature Medicine
on the most promising clinical trials in the coming year.

Artificial intelligence for early lung cancer diagnosis

Diagnose lung cancer earlywhen still small in size and localised, can save your life. A chest x-ray is usually the first test that suggests possible lung cancer, followed by a computed tomography (CT) scan, which can advance the diagnosis. The trial in progress out of 150 thousand patients enrolled in six hospitals in the United Kingdom – selected by Nature Medicine and presented by pulmonologist David Baldwin, honorary professor of Medicine at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom – aims to check whether Artificial Intelligence (AI) applied to chest X-rays allows for a reduction the times to do the CT scan, and therefore to have one first diagnosis of lung cancer. Baldwin explains: We demonstrated previously that immediate reporting of chest x-rays by radiographers can make a substantial difference, halving Almost time for diagnosis, from 63 days to 32 days. We will complete recruitment in July 2024 and hope to have results in 2024. Our hypothesis, based on previous research, that with the use of AI we can identify lung cancer earlier, reducing time to diagnosis by up to 50%. If preliminary results are confirmed, there could be a revolutionary change in the standards of diagnosis and treatment of this tumor: the use of artificial intelligence at the time of chest x-ray.

AI also supports the emergency room

Among the trials expected in 2024, according to researchers interviewed by Naturethere is also one clinical study – MARS-ED- which provides theuse of artificial intelligence For identify the patients most at risk in the emergency room, Therefore
from
treat with greater urgency. The premise starts from a retrospective study conducted at the Maastricht University Medical Center, where a new clinical risk score, the RISKINDEX, which used an artificial intelligence model to predict the 31-day mortality of patients who had visited an emergency room. The tool was developed and evaluated in four Dutch hospitals, using data from 266,327 patients with 7.1 million laboratory results available.

Hereditary high cholesterol, new gene editing techniques

About one in three hundred people are born with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (the child inherits an altered copy of the gene from a parent ed), among the most common genetic conditions but also among the main cardiovascular risk factors. The disease caused by mutations in the Pcsk9 genewhich encodes a protein that breaks down low-density lipoprotein receptors, Ldla type of
cholesterol “bad”
. Although statins can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients, most fail to achieve optimal LDL cholesterol levels with chronic therapy. According to cardiologist Amit Khera, professor at Harvard Medical School in Boston, interviewed by the magazine Naturethe solution could come from Heart-1 trialwith which in 2024 the effectiveness of an advanced therapy will be tested based on the CRISPR technique, which uses messenger RNA (mRna): in asingle administration aims to “turn off” the Pcsk9 gene in the liver, for example lastingly reduce LDL cholesterolcause of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Stem cells for Parkinson’s disease

Among the trials expected in 2024, Nature Medicine includes the STEM-PD study that aims to test a stem cell therapy in the Parkinson’s disease: dopaminergic neurons will be transplantedderived from human embryonic stem cells, in the brains of patients between 50 and 75 years old with AD Parkinson’s in moderate phase. These are patients who are usually excluded from clinical trials – which mainly involve patients in an advanced stage of the disease – and who instead could have the greatest benefits. The researchers hope to have preliminary results by the end of 2024.

T-cell vaccine for HIV

A vaccine for the prevention of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity will be tested in 2024 in a trials phase 1randomized, double-blind.
Adults between 18 and 55 years of age, in good health and without HIV, will be enrolled: they will receive one of the three doses of VIR-1388 or a placebo.
The first doses of the vaccine have already been administered to study participants.
The trial conducted byHIV Vaccine Trials Network at ten sites in the United States and two sites in South Africa.

An app to cure depression during pregnancy

A team led by the University of Liverpool has developed an app That
allows to one woman




peer

(from the same community with no previous experience in healthcare ed) Of provide a intervention based on cognitive therapy
to women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy who are having a depression greater. The application, funded by the National Institute for Research and Treatment of the United Kingdom, aims to guarantee adequate and effective assistance even in low- and middle-income countries where there is a lack of trained professionals.
In 2024 it will be tested in rural areas of Pakistan through a trial that will put comparing the app with the standard therapy version of the program
Thinking Healthyprovided by health workers in those areas.

Malaria vaccine, long-term effectiveness

A notable pproblem with malaria vaccines – and one of the reasons it took over a hundred years to implement a vaccine – the requires an exceptionally high antibody response because the vaccine really works.
Among the promising trials in 2024, reported by Nature Medicine, there is it
study in phase 3
on theefficacy of a long-term vaccine against malaria.

Brain metastases in patients with breast cancer

The brain metastasis they are a major problem in advanced breast cancer which affects about half of HER2-positive patients, but there is only one treatment approved by the American regulatory authority FDA – Food and Drug Administration for this patient population. Among the trials expected in 2024 there is one international study multicentric, DESTINY-Breast12aimed avevaluate the efficacy and safety of an antibody-drug conjugate (Adc) against brain metastases in patients with breast cancer.

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December 29, 2023 (changed December 29, 2023 | 07:22)



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