It’s always bad to be careful when a child coughs, be careful it’s whooping cough

It’s always bad to be careful when a child coughs, be careful it’s whooping cough

What is whooping cough? What are the typical symptoms? How to prevent whooping cough in daily life? Recently, the Beijing CDC WeChat public account issued relevant reminders.

What is whooping cough?

Whooping cough is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis and is highly contagious. Before the large-scale application of vaccines, whooping cough was one of the most common childhood diseases and one of the important causes of infant and child mortality worldwide.

The disease initially looks like a cold. Atypical cases may be asymptomatic, or may only have a mild cough and low-grade fever. Clinically, it is characterized by paroxysmal, spasmodic cough, and inspiratory roar like a cock’s crow. The course of the disease can last as long as 2 to 3 months, hence the name whooping cough.

How is whooping cough transmitted?

Humans are the only host of Bordetella pertussis, and patients with whooping cough, latent infections and carriers are the sources of infection of this disease. For infants and young children, parents or people living together who are infected with Bordetella pertussis are the main source of infection.

The incubation period of whooping cough is 5-21 days, usually 7-14 days. It is contagious from the beginning of the incubation period to 6 weeks after the onset of the disease, especially from the end of the incubation period to 2-3 weeks after the onset of cough symptoms, which is the most contagious.

Whooping cough is mainly spread through droplets. For example, when a patient coughs or sneezes, the bacteria are spread into the air. Susceptible people inhale the droplets carrying the bacteria and become infected.

Who gets whooping cough?

The population is generally susceptible to whooping cough, but infants and young children are more susceptible. Due to factors such as being under the age of immunization, incomplete immunization history, frailty, etc., infants under 1 year old are at high risk of developing pertussis and are prone to pneumonia, leading to serious consequences.

In countries where the vaccine is widely available, more and more cases of pertussis are being detected in older children and adults.

In recent years, pertussis has reappeared in developed countries such as Europe and the United States, and the incidence of pertussis has rebounded. Regardless of whooping cough vaccination or natural infection with whooping cough, it does not produce lifelong immunity, which means that whooping cough can cause repeated infections.

What are the typical symptoms of whooping cough?

Clinically, it is characterized by paroxysmal and spasmodic coughs that do not end with a rooster-like ending. Paroxysmal and spasmodic cough attacks are characterized by frequent and uninterrupted short coughs of more than ten or dozens of times, until the patient takes a deep breath after exhaustion. Because the larynx is still in spasm when inhaling, a large amount of air quickly passes through the spasmed glottis, making a special high-pitched cock-like inhalation sound, and then the next spasmodic cough occurs, and so on many times, until the cough until thick sputum comes out.

When the cough is severe, epistaxis, hemoptysis, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and even intracranial hemorrhage may occur. Mild cases occur several times a day, while severe cases occur dozens of times a day, mostly at night.

Spasmodic cough attacks can be induced by stimulation such as running, eating, catching cold, smoking, crying, or checking the pharynx. Children without secondary infection generally have normal body temperature and no fever.

Newborns and infants often do not have typical spasmodic cough, but show paroxysmal breath-holding cyanosis, which can lead to death by suffocation.

How to relieve whooping cough?

Isolate the respiratory tract, keep the indoor air fresh, and the temperature and humidity appropriate to avoid factors that induce spasmodic cough.

Don’t close your doors. Some parents are afraid that their children will catch cold and close the door tightly. In fact, this is not good. Children with whooping cough are prone to lack of oxygen due to frequent and severe spasmodic coughs. They should be supplemented with more oxygen and try to keep the air fresh and circulated indoors. When the air is dry, increase the humidity appropriately. You can use a humidifier or wipe the floor with a wet mop to keep the indoor humidity at about 50%.

Don’t stay in bed. Some parents think that activities will aggravate their children’s cough. This is a misunderstanding. Allowing children to do appropriate activities and games in fresh air will often alleviate coughs, but excessive fatigue should be avoided.

Whooping cough lasts a long time and consumes a lot of children’s bodies. Therefore, children must not be allowed to move, but they must not be left alone. They must have adequate nutrition and rest, so activities must be moderate.

Avoid smoke irritation. If there are smokers at home, it is best not to smoke during the child’s illness, or to smoke outdoors. In addition, when lighting the stove or cooking, keep children away from oil fumes.

Avoid contact with children with other diseases to avoid infection or other complications, because resistance and immunity are relatively low at this time.

Avoid excessive stimulation, arrange eating and medication at the same time as much as possible, do not overeat, and burp after eating to prevent vomiting and aspiration.

How to prevent whooping cough?

In daily life, everyone should maintain good personal hygiene habits, wash hands frequently, cover the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, pay attention to the balance between work and rest, have a reasonable work and rest period, and participate in appropriate physical exercises to enhance their own resistance. Especially when taking care of infants and young children, if adults develop symptoms such as coughing, they should wear masks in time and strengthen hand hygiene to avoid infecting children.

Vaccination is the most economical and effective measure to prevent whooping cough. For example, the vaccine used to prevent whooping cough in Beijing is acellular diphtheria pertussis vaccine (combination pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus vaccine). The vaccination age is 1 shot each at 3 months, 4 months and 5 months, which is the basic immunity; another shot at 1 and a half years old is the booster immunity.

If a child has been vaccinated with other combination vaccines containing pertussis vaccine components according to the vaccine instructions, the corresponding dose of vaccination can be regarded as completed.

Children aged 3 months to 5 years old who have not completed the prescribed doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-pertussis vaccine need to be revaccinated with the unfinished doses. The interval between each dose of the first 3 doses shall not be less than 28 days, and the interval between the 4th and 3rd doses shall not be less than 6 days. moon.

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