Currently, various respiratory pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are in the epidemic stage. Most of the patients are children, but there are also many adults who have been infected. Some patients also suffered from superinfections with multiple pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza. Who is more likely to have superinfection and will it worsen the condition? A respiratory physician will give you detailed answers.
Discover typical characteristics and identify the culprit of disease
At present, the most popular pathogens are mycoplasma, influenza virus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. These respiratory infections generally present symptoms of cough, sputum, runny nose, fever, and general fatigue, but each disease has some typical characteristics:
Mycoplasma infection generally has a slow onset, and most patients suffer from intractable dry cough, and some patients also develop symptoms such as rash; influenza is mostly acute, and patients mainly have high fever symptoms, which can reach a fever of more than 38.5℃; Streptococcus pneumoniae The infection is generally acute. Patients often experience chills and shivering after catching a cold, with a high fever of 38°C-39°C, accompanied by chest pain, and the sputum is usually rust-colored.
Generally speaking, if you have a stubborn fever that lasts for 72 hours, a stubborn dry cough that affects your normal life, and symptoms such as chest pain and breathlessness, you should go to the hospital in time. At this time, the pathogen may not only stay in the upper respiratory tract, but may have invaded the lower respiratory tract, and there is even the possibility of pneumonia.
Four groups of people will bear the brunt of co-infection aggravating the disease
Generally speaking, there is rarely a completely single infection. Viruses can be mixed with bacteria, and mycoplasma can also be infected with bacteria. At present, there are many mycoplasma and bacterial infections, especially among hospitalized pneumonia patients, there are many mycoplasma and bacterial infections. Superinfection causes certain damage to the immune function and will have more impact on the lungs, making the infection deeper, leading to aggravation of symptoms, large dosage of medication, long course of disease, and difficulty in treatment.
There are four types of people who are more likely to suffer from co-infection: one is school-age children and middle-aged and elderly people over 65 years old; the other is people who live in humid and airless environments; people who have bad living habits of smoking, drinking alcohol, and improper diet; Patients with chronic respiratory diseases, such as COPD, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis and other diseases, are more likely to develop co-infections if they are not protected.
There are antibodies after being infected, but don’t take it lightly
Mycoplasma infection generally produces antibodies within 5 to 7 days, and the antibodies can last for 2-6 months. However, with antibodies, there is also the possibility of reinfection. Mycoplasma forms are diverse and there is no targeted vaccine. The time it takes for influenza antibodies to develop varies from person to person and can last anywhere from 3 to 12 months. Antibodies will appear 1-2 weeks after infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and antibody concentrations begin to decrease after 6-8 months.
Some patients may be infected with a disease just a few days later. This is mainly because even if the body has recovered, the immune function has been damaged to a certain extent due to this infection, and the infection will worsen when encountering different bacterial infections.
Currently, there are preventive vaccinations against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae. But everyone should pay attention to whether you have been vaccinated or entered the safe. The symptoms of infection may be milder after being vaccinated. If you get vaccinated in time, antibodies can be produced in time.
In addition to wearing a mask, do these preventive things
First of all, personal protection must be done. People with chronic respiratory diseases or chronic underlying diseases should try to avoid going to places where people gather, actively wear masks, and rinse their mouths with light salt water after returning home.
If the weather conditions are good, pay attention to strengthening ventilation and adding clothes to keep warm, especially the mouth and neck. Get enough sleep and eat more high-quality protein and foods rich in vitamin A and vitamin C. Finally, do a good job in personal home hygiene and scrub and disinfect the room.
Text/Nie Shan (Beijing Friendship Hospital)