As common vision problems such as myopia and astigmatism become more and more common among teenagers, when some parents hear that their children have been diagnosed with amblyopia, they will look at the doctor with confusion, followed by the classic three questions: What is amblyopia? Why do children have amblyopia? Can amblyopia be cured?
“Amblyopia” refers to the effect of strabismus, uncorrected anisometropia, high refractive error or form deprivation during the visual development period, resulting in the best corrected visual acuity being lower than the normal level or the visual acuity difference between the two eyes being less than two lines. above. Simply put, amblyopia means that vision development is lower than the passing line of normal vision. The normal vision reference value for children in different age groups during the developmental period: 3 to 5 years old ≥ 0.5, and 6 years and above > 0.7.
Although children with amblyopia have poor vision, there are no obvious organic lesions in their eyes. The parts are all good, why can’t I see clearly?
Eyes, like other organs, gradually develop and mature starting in infancy. The moment a newborn baby opens its eyes and receives external light stimulation, its vision begins to gradually develop. The image of the outside world can clearly fall on the retina, which is the most critical point in the formation of our vision.
If there are some interfering factors, such as relatively large refractive errors or congenital cataracts, causing the retina to be unable to receive image stimulation, then the child’s visual development will be hindered, leading to poor vision development and eventually amblyopia.
Once amblyopia is diagnosed, many parents will be very anxious, worried that their children’s vision will not recover. Children with amblyopia who are in the visual sensitive period (under 8 years old) can usually achieve satisfactory clinical results with timely intervention and treatment. And the younger the age, the better the treatment effect.
Treatment of the cause. Refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) and anisometropia (a large difference in power between the two eyes) are the most common causes of amblyopia. Therefore, for these different types of “refractive errors”, “glasses” need to be corrected in time, and then vision rehabilitation training can be carried out.
Vision rehabilitation treatment. First of all, some small games have the effect of correcting amblyopia, which are called family fine vision training, such as traditional bead stringing and derived puzzles. Secondly, amblyopia treatment instrument or software training is a commonly used amblyopia training method.
Single-eyed amblyopia, specially designed to treat “lazy eyes”. For children with low vision in only one eye, when they see objects with both eyes together, the amblyopic eye does not actually play a role, but is “lazy” on one side. Therefore, for children with monocular amblyopia, another key factor in the treatment of amblyopia is “covering”. Covering the good-sighted eye forces the child to use the developmentally delayed “lazy eye.”
In the past, the traditional covering method was to add an eye patch outside the glasses, but this affects the appearance and may affect the child’s psychological development, so some alternative methods have been derived. For example: film suppression therapy, which uses a resin film attached to the lens in front of the good eye to reduce the vision of the good eye. It is usually used for children with amblyopia with a visual acuity of >0.3; atropine suppression therapy, which paralyzes the adjustment of the opposite eye, allowing close-range imaging. Blurred, forcing the child to use the amblyopic eye, usually used for mild to moderate amblyopia.
Most treatments for amblyopia can be done at home and have few side effects. However, there are two points that parents need to pay attention to: First, early detection. Practice has proven that for children in the golden stage of visual development, regular eye examinations, early detection and early treatment are the best ways to avoid amblyopia. The older the child, the longer and more difficult the treatment will be. The second is persistence. No matter which method is used, parents need to persist. If “three days of fishing and two days of drying the net”, the treatment effect will be greatly reduced or even ineffective. (Wang Qiming, deputy chief physician of the Department of Ophthalmology, Wuhan Union Medical College Hospital)