As autumn turns to winter, the temperature drops, and various common diseases among the elderly enter a period of high incidence. What diseases should the elderly pay attention to during this period? How to protect yourself? Recently, the China-Japan Friendship Hospital held a special press conference on “Paying Attention to Elderly Health and Preventing Common Diseases in Autumn and Winter”, and many experts answered this question.
Hypertensive patients should be wary of stroke
“In autumn and winter, the incidence of stroke in the elderly shows a significant increase. First, because the temperature drops during this period, which can easily irritate blood vessels. Second, because the blood pressure of the elderly is prone to fluctuations in cold weather, and people with high blood pressure are prone to fluctuations. The risk of stroke will be greatly increased.” Sun Lili, deputy chief physician of the Department of Neurology, reminded that the elderly should keep warm when going out and closely monitor their blood pressure. Once suspected symptoms of stroke appear, they should go to the hospital quickly.
Stroke, commonly known as “brain stroke”, is an acute cerebrovascular disease caused by brain tissue damage caused by vascular disease in the brain. Sun Lili introduced that stroke has the “five highs” – high morbidity, high mortality, high disability rate, high recurrence rate and high economic burden, which requires great attention.
“Different locations of cerebral vascular lesions will lead to different clinical manifestations, such as difficulty speaking, difficulty swallowing, coughing when drinking water, crooked corners of the mouth, paralysis of limbs, etc.” Sun Lili reminded that when someone around you has symptoms of suspected stroke, people around you should Assist patients to seek medical treatment quickly.
How is stroke treated? Sun Lili introduced that the treatment of stroke is divided into three stages: the first stage is emergency treatment, the hospital carries out ultra-early intravenous thrombolytic treatment and intravascular thrombectomy treatment for patients; the second stage is acute hospitalization treatment, the hospital During the treatment, a comprehensive examination is conducted to find the cause of the stroke; the third stage is rehabilitation treatment. After the patient is discharged from the hospital, he still needs long-term oral medication to prevent the recurrence of stroke.
People with arthritis should also exercise moderately
As the saying goes: “People age first, their legs age first.” Wang Bailiang, chief physician of Orthopedics and Joint Surgery, said that this sentence refers to a degenerative disease – osteoarthritis of the knee joint. It is actually the aging and degeneration of the brittle bones in the joints. .
“When the temperature drops in autumn and winter, knee osteoarthritis is prone to attack or worsen.” Wang Bailiang reminded that people often say that “spring covers the autumn frost” is actually a misunderstanding. The elderly should pay special attention to adding clothing to keep their knees warm.
“Among people over 50 years old, the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis exceeds 30%; among people over 60 years old, the prevalence exceeds 50%. It is estimated that more than 100 million people in our country suffer from this disease.” Wang Bailiang said that knee osteoarthritis is a part of the natural aging process of the human body. Patients do not need to worry too much and can be treated scientifically.
Some patients believe that having arthritis means they cannot exercise. Is this idea correct? Wang Bailiang said that patients with arthritis can engage in sports such as walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, etc. with small amounts of exercise and small range of movements. These sports can help increase joint lubricating fluid and protect joint health. At the same time, patients should avoid high jumping, mountain climbing, long-distance hiking and other sports to avoid overuse or damage to joints.
In terms of treatment, Wang Bailiang introduced that patients with milder conditions can take non-drug treatments, including physical therapy, muscle training and the use of auxiliary braces; patients with intermediate conditions can take drug treatments, such as topical medication, oral medication, etc. Patients with severe disease need surgical treatment, and different surgical options such as total knee replacement, partial replacement or articular cartilage repair can be selected according to the condition.
Diabetic patients should beware of colds in autumn and winter
“As the weather gets colder, diabetic foot and related neuralgia, which are closely related to human circulation and immune function, occur more frequently, seriously affecting the quality of life of patients.” Mao Peng, deputy director of the Pain Department, analyzed that according to statistics, among diabetic patients over 50 years old Among them, the incidence rate of diabetic foot is 8.1%, and the incidence rate of diabetic peripheral neuralgia exceeds 20%.
Mao Peng introduced that diabetes is a chronic disease that may damage the sensory nerves of elderly patients, causing the patient’s legs and feet to have a feeling similar to that of crawling ants and accompanied by hypoesthesia. Therefore, patients should pay attention to avoid inappropriate behaviors in their daily lives. necessary damage. “Especially when washing feet, be sure to pay attention to the water temperature. Patients cannot accurately judge the water temperature due to reduced sensory ability, and are prone to burns. Family members should pay special attention.” Mao Peng said that it is recommended that patients usually wear white socks to facilitate timely observation by family members. If injuries to legs or feet are found, they should be sent to the hospital for treatment in time.
How should diabetic patients protect themselves during autumn and winter? Mao Peng suggested that firstly, we should keep warm, avoid frostbite, and keep feet dry and clean; secondly, we should prevent colds. The temperature drops in autumn and winter, which makes colds more likely to occur, and colds are the main culprit of acute complications of diabetes; thirdly, we should bask in the sun more, Improve blood circulation; fourth, we must exercise reasonably. Elderly patients should exercise at least twice a day for 30 minutes each time, preferably at noon and after meals in the evening. In form, they can choose some simple, convenient, and easy-to-persist exercises, such as walking, Do exercises, Tai Chi, etc.