Yesterday, the National Health Commission held a press conference to introduce the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases in winter and issue health tips. Mi Feng, spokesperson of the National Health Commission and deputy director of the Publicity Department, said that since New Year’s Day, the number of fever clinic visits in medical institutions across the country has shown a fluctuating downward trend. The current respiratory diseases are still dominated by influenza, new coronavirus infection is at a low level, and medical services are generally stable and orderly. Regarding the COVID-19 epidemic, Chinese disease control experts stated at the meeting that the COVID-19 epidemic may rebound this month, and the JN.1 mutant strain will most likely become the dominant epidemic strain in my country.
In the short term, influenza viruses will still dominate
Recently, the new coronavirus variant JN.1 is spreading rapidly around the world. The United States, Canada and other countries have ushered in a new peak of infection after the New Year’s Day holiday. What is the current situation of new coronavirus infection in my country? Is there a significant increase after the New Year’s Day holiday? In this regard, Wang Dayan, director of the National Influenza Center of the Institute of Viral Diseases of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said that recent data from the multi-channel monitoring system showed that after the New Year’s Day holiday, the national new crown epidemic is still at a low level, and the positive rate of new coronavirus tests in sentinel hospitals has remained at Below 1%, the proportion of JN.1 mutant strains is showing an upward trend.
Experts believe that this winter and next spring, my country will continue to see a variety of respiratory pathogens alternate or co-circulate, and influenza viruses will still be dominant in the short term. Affected by multiple factors such as the continued import of JN.1 mutant strains, the gradual decrease in domestic influenza activity, and the decline in population immunity, the new coronavirus infection epidemic may rebound this month, and the JN.1 mutant strain will most likely develop into a dominant epidemic strain in my country.
It is possible to be infected with influenza B again if you have had influenza A
Recently, influenza B infections have shown an overall upward trend. What is the difference between influenza A and influenza B? How to tell? Will patients who have just been infected with influenza A be infected with influenza B again? In this regard, Wang Dayan, director of the National Influenza Center of the Institute of Viral Diseases of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said that seasonal influenza includes influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2 subtypes and influenza B. my country’s southern provinces have entered this influenza epidemic season since early October, and northern provinces since late October. In the early stage, the H3N2 subtype influenza virus was the main circulating strain. The proportion of influenza B viruses in southern provinces has continued to rise to 36.8% in the past three weeks, and the proportion of influenza B viruses in northern provinces has continued to rise to 57.7% in the past five weeks. In some provinces, the proportion of influenza B viruses has continued to rise to 36.8%. Influenza viruses account for more than influenza A viruses.
Influenza A and B viruses are distinguished by the sequence characteristics of their genes and proteins. The seasonal influenza caused by them is difficult to distinguish clinically. To distinguish and identify influenza A or B viruses, pathogenic typing testing, such as nucleic acid testing and antigen testing, is required. In the same influenza epidemic season, different types and subtypes of influenza viruses usually co-circulate, but in different proportions. The immune response generated after getting influenza A cannot provide effective immune protection against influenza B. In other words, even if you have had influenza A this epidemic season, you may still be infected with influenza B again. Currently, the influenza vaccine contains components of influenza A H1N1 subtype, H3N2 subtype and influenza B. It is recommended that high-risk groups receive influenza vaccine as early as possible every year.
Different respiratory pathogens can infect simultaneously or alternately
Wang Guiqiang, director of the Department of Infectious Diseases at Peking University First Hospital, said that winter is the season when respiratory diseases are prone to occur, including influenza A and B, COVID-19, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and mycoplasma. The immunity established after infection by these pathogens does not last long. Infections can occur repeatedly. At the same time, these pathogens do not have cross-protective immunity and can be infected at the same time or alternately. Repeated infections in a short period of time often lead to milder symptoms because the immunity established by the infection still exists; however, simultaneous infection with different pathogens may lead to aggravation of the disease, especially if the respiratory immune barrier is damaged and the risk of bacterial infection increases, especially for the elderly and young children. and patients with underlying medical conditions are more likely to experience worsening of their condition.
Wang Guiqiang suggested that when symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection occur, antigen or nucleic acid testing should be carried out in time. After a clear diagnosis, targeted treatment can be given. For example, anti-influenza virus drugs such as oseltamivir or mabaloxavir can be used for the elderly, children and the elderly. Patients with underlying diseases should use anti-influenza drugs early. If it is a new coronavirus infection, anti-new coronavirus drugs should be used early to relieve symptoms, shorten the course of the disease, reduce the risk of severe illness and hospitalization, and reduce the risk of further transmission.
Mi Feng, spokesperson of the National Health Commission and deputy director of the Publicity Department, also reminded that as the winter vacation and Spring Festival holidays approach, large-scale movements and gatherings of people may accelerate the spread of respiratory diseases. Medical institutions must do a good job of monitoring and early warning, and strengthen the management of key locations and prevention and control of key links. Provide health consultation and referral guidance and other services in a timely manner to key groups such as the elderly, pregnant women, children, and patients with chronic basic diseases, and provide convenient conditions for them to receive vaccinations. It is necessary to actively allocate medical resources, optimize the medical treatment process, and ensure the supply of medical supplies. We will reserve medical resources for common sports injuries, accident injuries, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular emergencies during the holidays to ensure that patients receive timely and effective treatment.