As temperatures drop sharply, middle-aged and elderly people are most vulnerable to myocardial infarction

As temperatures drop sharply, middle-aged and elderly people are most vulnerable to myocardial infarction

“When the temperature drops sharply during the change of seasons from autumn to winter, there is a high incidence of myocardial infarction, and middle-aged and elderly people suffering from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases will face a dangerous moment.” Wang Xiuli, deputy chief physician of the Department of Cardiology, Nenjiang People’s Hospital, Heilongjiang Province, recently told China Women’s News In a telephone interview, a reporter from all media said that cold is a fatal factor in inducing myocardial infarction. Because the human body is suddenly exposed to cold stimulation, sympathetic nerves are excited, blood vessels constrict, blood pressure rises, heart rate accelerates, fibrinogen in the blood increases, fibrinolytic activity decreases, the blood is in a state of high coagulation and low dissolution, and at the same time, platelets are activated to make platelets The aggregation increases, the blood viscosity increases, the blood flow speed will slow down accordingly, and the probability of arteriosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombus formation blocking the coronary arteries will be greatly increased.

Increased temperature difference between morning and evening and sudden sharp cooling will lead to high incidence of myocardial infarction

November 20th every year is “Myocardial Infarction Treatment Day”. Myocardial infarction, also called acute myocardial infarction, has a sudden onset, severe condition, and high mortality. It is one of the main causes of sudden death in middle-aged and elderly people, and it has a tendency to become younger. Data show that nearly 1 million myocardial infarction events occur across the country every year, and 1 out of every 3 myocardial infarction patients dies, with a mortality rate of over 30%.

The incidence of myocardial infarction is closely related to climate, and has obvious seasonal characteristics. November every year to January of the following year is the period of high incidence of heart disease, among which acute myocardial infarction is the most critical one.

Judging from the data of 660 hospitals in the first large-scale clinical collaborative study of myocardial infarction in China and the exchange data of hospitals in various provinces and cities, the distribution of myocardial infarction in China has the following rules: with the Yangtze River as the boundary, the north is higher than the south; with Henan and Shanxi as the boundaries, the east is higher in the west.

After the change of seasons from autumn to winter, the temperature difference between morning and evening and indoor and outdoor temperature gradually increases. Especially on days when the temperature drops greatly, the alternating feeling of cold and warmth is more obvious. This is the time when myocardial infarction is easy to occur.

Zhang Ye, deputy chief physician of the Department of Cardiology at Nenjiang People’s Hospital of Heilongjiang Province, said that during a myocardial infarction, the blood supply to the heart is interrupted. If the blood supply cannot be restored in time, it may cause the risk of heart function damage at least, or cause electrophysiological disorders of the heart, causing Ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest is life-threatening. Experts remind patients with basic cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis that blood vessels often have varying degrees of stenosis. Cold stimulation can aggravate the ischemia and hypoxia of the original diseased blood vessels, making it more likely to cause acute myocardial infarction.

Recognize 5 signs of “pain” and seek medical attention as soon as possible if there is a problem

“The most typical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction are chest pain and profuse sweating, but some atypical aura symptoms may appear hours or even days before the onset of myocardial infarction.” Wang Xiuli reminded everyone to pay special attention to winter myocardial infarction. 5 warning signs before an attack.

1. Neck and throat discomfort. A few days before a myocardial infarction, throat or neck discomfort and congestion may occur, and are often accompanied by symptoms of profuse sweating.

2. Toothache. The range of radiating pain from myocardial infarction is quite wide, and can cause severe toothache, but there is no obvious dental disease. Sometimes the location of toothache is not precise, and pain is often felt in several teeth. Even dental treatment and taking painkillers cannot relieve it.

3. Upper abdominal pain. Sometimes, because the vagus nerve is stimulated by necrotic myocardium and cardiac output is reduced, resulting in insufficient blood perfusion in the gastrointestinal tissue, patients with myocardial infarction will experience gastrointestinal reactions such as vomiting and diarrhea. Some patients with myocardial infarction will regard chest pain as “stomach pain.”

4. Neck and back pain. Because the sensory nerve fibers of the heart are distributed in the sympathetic ganglia in the neck and chest, angina pectoris often radiates to the back of the neck.

5. Left shoulder pain. Pain caused by cardiac ischemia may also radiate to the left shoulder, inner side of the left arm, little finger and ring finger.

“Patients with myocardial infarction should seek medical treatment as soon as possible after relevant signs appear. At the same time, they should absolutely maintain bed rest, reduce the load on the heart, maintain a relatively quiet environment, and reduce various external stimuli. If possible, the condition should be monitored in a timely manner, such as monitoring vital signs, including blood pressure. , breathing, pulse, heart rate, review electrocardiogram, etc., to understand changes in the condition in a timely manner.” Wang Xiuli said that if the condition is mild, drug treatment can be carried out: analgesic and sedative drugs, such as morphine, pethidine, etc.; coronary artery dilation drugs, such as Nitroglycerin; antithrombotic drugs such as aspirin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, heparin, etc. Patients should seek the advice of professional doctors as to which drug treatments are suitable for them.

6 dangerous periods, high-risk groups should be especially careful

“There are 6 periods of high incidence of myocardial infarction.” Zhang Ye specifically warned middle-aged and elderly people at high risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases to be extra careful when encountering the following situations.

One is when going to the toilet. Patients with hypertension and coronary heart disease should be alert to the occurrence of constipation, because when people are constipated, they will exert force unconsciously, causing the abdominal pressure to increase, causing the blood pressure to rise rapidly in a short period of time, and the heart rate is also constantly accelerating, invisibly. Increased probability of myocardial infarction. Therefore, special attention should be paid to avoid straining to defecate when going to the toilet. If necessary, you can take intestinal moisturizing drugs.

The second is entertainment time. Whether you are playing mahjong or chess, you need to remain seated for a long time, and your mood is easy to fluctuate. It is very easy for blood pressure to rise suddenly and heartbeat to accelerate suddenly, leading to myocardial ischemia and increasing the risk of myocardial infarction. Probability of occurrence. The correct approach is to get up and move around every 40 minutes.

The third is when taking a bath. When taking a bath, it is easy for the blood vessels throughout the body to dilate due to the increase in temperature. Coupled with staying in a closed environment for a long time, the brain and heart are prone to ischemia and hypoxia, increasing the probability of myocardial infarction. Therefore, bathing time in winter should be controlled within 15 minutes. In addition, the water temperature should not be too high. Also, be careful not to bathe when you are hungry or full.

The fourth is during exercise. If you suddenly do strenuous exercise, your blood pressure will rise, your heart will lack power, and it will eventually induce sudden cardiac death. Sudden strenuous exercise may also cause blood vessels to spasm and contract, increasing the probability of cardiovascular blockage. Therefore, the elderly should try to choose moderate to low-intensity exercise, such as jogging, walking, etc.

The fifth is during dinner. When alcohol enters the body, it will put the brain in a state of excitement, accelerate the heart rate, increase blood pressure, and in severe cases may lead to arrhythmia. If you have cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, you may have acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, Don’t drink too much wine even if you have a dinner party.

Sixth is when you get up. Due to the biological clock effect, as the sun rises, brain thinking becomes active, sympathetic nerve tension increases, blood concentrations of adrenaline, catecholamines and corticosteroids increase, physiological metabolism in the body increases, and a series of changes combine to cause stenosis of local blood vessels in the heart and brain. Ischemia aggravates and promotes damage or rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaques, causing arterial thrombosis and blocking blood vessels. Therefore, after waking up in the morning, move your legs and arms in bed, and then sit up slowly.

Keep blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids under good control, and pay more attention to health care than prescriptions.

“Myocardial infarction is the result of high-risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, abdominal obesity, lack of exercise, lack of fruits and vegetables, stress, and alcohol abuse.” Zhang Ye believes that active treatment of existing chronic diseases is the key to prevention. important means for myocardial infarction. Experts remind high-risk groups to consciously do the following:

Pay attention to prevention and get regular physical examinations. It is recommended that people over the age of 30 have a physical examination every 3 to 5 years; those over the age of 50 are recommended to have a physical examination every 1 to 2 years. For patients with risk factors for coronary heart disease, they should have regular physical examinations, control blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids, quit smoking, control weight, and maintain a comfortable mood.

Work and rest are balanced, and daily life is regular. Develop good living habits and avoid working overtime and staying up late for long periods of time. If the body is tired for a long time and the body’s immunity is low, the risk of myocardial infarction increases exponentially.

Nutritional combination and reasonable diet. Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, less animal fat, and less saturated fatty acids. Try not to eat animal offal and fried foods, and control your cholesterol intake.

Proper exercise and good health. Perform moderate-intensity physical activity at least 3 to 5 times a week, for at least 30 to 45 minutes each time.

Quit smoking, limit alcohol consumption, and stay away from drugs. Strictly quit smoking, drink as little as possible, and try to be “alcohol-free”.

Deputy Chief Physician Wang Xiuli reminds you: Once a myocardial infarction occurs, you must not perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, take nitroglycerin, drink water, or go to the hospital alone. These wrong practices can easily cause the condition to worsen. After a sudden myocardial infarction, patients should lie still, call 120 for help urgently, and try to open the occluded blood vessels as soon as possible.

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